Adams, Jessica (ed), Micahel P.Bibler, and Cécile Accilien. Just Below South: Intercultural performance in the Caribbean and the U.S. South. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007. 

Ancelet, Bary Jean.  Lomax in Louisiana: Trials and Triumph. Folklife in Louisiana  

Armstrong, Louis 1954, Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.  

Asbury, Herbert 1938, The French Quarter: an Informal History of the New Orleans Underworld. New York: Garden City Publishing Co.  

Barnes, Bruce Sunpie and Rachel Breunlin. "The Last Brass Band? Musical Mentorship and  Social Justice Organizing." in Smithsonian Folkways Magazine (Winter-Spring 2015).  

Beasley, Cecily Reeves. "Creole and Afro-Creole Music of Louisiana: Its Origin and Influence", Florida State University, 1976. Ph,d. Dissertation.  


Becker, Cynthia. “New Orleans Mardi Gras Indians: Mediating Racial Politics from the Backstreets to Main Street.” African Arts 46, no. 2 (Summer 2013): 36.  

Berry, Jason. 1988. “African Cultural Memory in New Orleans Music,” Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 8, No. 1 : pp. 3-12.  

___.  City of a Million Dreams: A History of New Orleans at Year 300. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2021.

____. “The Rhythm of Congo Square: Dances That Rocked the City.” New Orleans Magazine 45, No. 10 (July 2011): 42  

Berry, Lemuel, Jr. 1991, "The Impact of Creole Music on Jazz." The Second Line, vol. 43, no.- 1,9-10.  

Brown, Robert N. “Don’t Bow Down on that Dirty Ground: A Photographic Essay of the Mardi Gras Indians of New Orleans.” Focus on Geography 57, no. 3 (2014): 103-113.  

Burns, Francis P.  “The Black Code: A Brief History of the Origin, Statutory Regulation  and Judicial Sanction of Slavery in Louisiana.” In The Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial Series in Louisiana History, vol. XIII, An Uncommon Experience Law and Judicial Institutions in Louisiana 1803-2003, edited by Judith Schafer & Warren M. Billings, 305-311. Lafayette: The Center for Louisiana Studies, 1997.   

Cable, George Washington.  The Dance in Place Congo & Creole Slave Songs.  New Orleans: Synoeceosial Farukvon Turk, 1976.  

Originally published in 1886, contains Creole slave songs, dance phrases and fragments of descriptions, and iconic illustrations by E.W. Kemble. 

Caffery, Joshua Clegg. Traditional Music in Coastal Louisiana: The 1934 Lomax Recordings. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 2013.  

Campanella, Richard. Geographies of New Orleans, Urban Fabrics Before the Storm. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2006.  

Provides historical sources, maps, graphs, and photos that explain the geography and built environment of New Orleans. 

Cataliotti, Robert. "'Some Kind of Something Is Going on Down There' Crossroads at Congo Square." Smithsonian Folkways Magazine.(Winter-Spring 2015).  

Charters, Samuel. A Language of Song: Journeys in the Musical World of the African Diaspora. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.  

Chernoff, John Miller. African Rhythm and African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1981.  

Christy, Edwin Pearce, Christy’s Plantation Melodies, No. 4.  Philadelphia: Fisher & Brothers, 1854.    

Courlander, Harold.  Negro Folk Music, United States of America.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1963.  

____. “Musical Instruments of Haiti.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (1941): 371-383.  

 ____. “Musical Instruments of Cuba.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 28, No.  2 (1942): 227-240.  

Crutcher, Michael. Tremé: Race and Place in a New Orleans Neighborhood (Geographies of Justice and Social Transformation Ser., 5). Athen: University of Georgia Press, 2010.  

Daniel, Yvonne. Dancing Wisdom: Embodied Knowledge in Haitian Vodou, Cuban Yoruba, and Bahian Candomblé. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2005.  

DeFrantz, Thomas F. Dancing Many Drums: Excavations in African American Dance. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2002.  

Dewulf, Jeroen. From the Kingdom of Kongo to Congo Square: Kongo Dances and the Origins of the Mardi Gras Indians. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2017.  

____. The Pinkster King and the King of Kongo: The Forgotten History of American’s Dutch-Owned Slaves. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2017.   

Donaldson, Gary A. “A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” The Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (1984): 63-72.  

Evans, Freddi Williams. Come Sunday: A Young Reader’s History of Congo Square. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2017.   

___.  Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2011.  

A comprehensive study of Congo Square that also connects the people and their cultural practices to locations in West and Central Africa and the Caribbean.  

___.  Congo Square: racines africaines de la Nouvelle-Orléans. Paris: la tour verte, 2012.   

___. “Congo Square and the Roots of Second Line Parading.” In Dancing in the Streets: Social and Pleasure Clubs of New Orleans. New Orleans: The Historic New Orleans Collection, 2021.  

___.  “Congo Square.” In 64 Parishes. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, September 16, 2013.  

___. “Congo Square and African-American Music Culture.” In 100 Years of Now, Haus de Kulturen der Welt Online Journal, Berlin, Germany, 2018.  

___  and Zada Johnson. “The Cultural Connections of New Orleans Second Line, Cuban Conga, and Haitian Rara.” In Freedom’s Dance: Social, Aid and Pleasure Clubs in New Orleans, Louisiana State University Press, 2018.   

___. “A WINDOW TO AFRICA: Enslaved Africans Perpetuated Cultural and Commercial Practices at Congo Square.” In New Orleans & The World: 1718-2018 Tricentennial Anthology. New Orleans: Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2017.   

___. “The Forward.” In Freedom in Congo Square. New York: Little Bee Books, 2016.   

___. "Congo Square." Oxford African American Studies Center. Ed. New York: Oxford U.P., 2015.   

___. “African Spirituality and Religion in New Orleans’ Congo Square.” In Ashe' to Amen Exhibition Catalogue. New Orleans: Ashe Cultural Arts Center, 2015.   


___. “Congo Square.” In The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. Ed. Sheren Sanders, Ph.D. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2014.   

___. “The Popular Dances of Congo Square.” In The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. Ed. Sheren Sanders, Ph.D. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2014.   

___. “Kongo Music and Dance at New Orleans’s Congo Square.” In Kongo Across the Waters. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2013.   

___. “Congo Square.” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. New Orleans: Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 16 Sept. 2013.   

___. “Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas, Fall, 2011.   

___. “New Orleans’ Congo Square: A Cultural Landmark.” In Ancestors of Congo Square: African Art in the New Orleans Museum of Art. New Orleans: Scala Publishers, 2011.   

Evans, Sula Janet.  Spirit of the Orisha, translated by Omoba Adéwálé Adénlé.   


For those who studying Orisha music, this book contains 38 song lyrics, translations and phonetics. The book and the 2-disc set CD project are available at:   

Emery, Lynne Fauley.  Black Dance in the United States from 1619 to 1970. Palo Alto: National Press Books, 1972. 

Surveys of dances performed by Africans and African Americans throughout the United States including Southern plantations, the North, the Caribbean and New Orleans.   

Emerson, Ken. Doo – dah!, Stephen Foster and the Rise of American Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.    


Offers an account of the life and time of Stephen Foster, considered the first songwriter to show that America could achieve cultural independence from Europe  

Fiehrer, Thomas, "From Quadrille to Stomp: The Creole Origins of Jazz." Popular Music, 10 (January 1991): 21-38.  

___.  “The African Presence in Colonial Louisiana:  An Essay on the Continuity of Caribbean Culture.” In Louisiana’s Black Heritage, edited by Robert MacDonald et. al, 3-31.  New Orleans:  Louisiana State Museum, 1979.   

Fi Yi Yi (Big Chief Victor Harris), Rachel Breunlin (editor). Fire In the Hole: The Spirit Work of Fi Yi Yi & Mandingo Warriors. New Orleans: University of New Orleans, 2018.  

Glass, Barbara. African American Dance: An Illustrated History. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2007.  

Godoy, Maria. “Meet The Calas, A New Orleans Tradition That Helped Free Slaves,” The Salt, What’s on Your Plate. NPR, WWNO, February 14, 2013.  

Gould, Virginia, “‘If I Can’t Have My Rights, I Can Have My Pleasures, and If They Won’t Give Me Wages, I Can Take Them’: Gender and Slave Labor in Antebellum New Orleans.” In The Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial Series in Louisiana History, vol XI, The African American Experience in Louisiana, Part A, edited by Charles Vincent, 340-357.  Lafayette: The Center for Louisiana Studies, 1999.    

Explores the role and prevalence of African market women (enslaved and free) in Antebellum New Orleans. 

Grattan, H. P. “The Origin of the Christy’s Minstrels.” The Theatre – A Month Review of the Drama, Music, and the Fine Arts. Vol. V (1882): 129-133.  

Gushee, Lawrence, "How the Creole Band Came To Be." Black Music Research Journal, 8, 1988.  

Hall, Ardencie. New Orleans Jazz Funerals: Transition to the Ancestors. New York: New York University, 1998. 


Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo.  Africans in Colonial Louisiana.  Baton Rouge:  Louisiana State University Press, 1992.  

Discusses the ethnic origin of enslaved Africans in Louisiana and their contributions to the language, food and cultural practices in the state.  

 ___.  “Myths About Creole Culture in Louisiana.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas 12 (Summer 2001): 79-85.  

___.  Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.  

Hare, Maude Cuney.  Six Creole Folk Songs.  New York:  Carl Fischer, 1921.  

Harris, Jessica. Beyond Gumbo: Creole Fusion Food from the Atlantic Rim. New York: Simon  & Schuster, 2003.  

___.  Foodways to Freedom.” American Legacy (Fall/Winter 2003): 19-21. 

Explores the use of culinary skills by enslaved free women of African descent to gain status, financial freedom and political power.  

Hearn, Lafcadio.  “The Scenes in Cable’s Romances.” Century Magazine Nov. (1883): 40-47.  

Holloway, Joseph E.  “The Origins of African-American Culture.” In Africanisms in American Culture, edited by Joseph Holloway, 1-17.  Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1990.   

Jackson, Joyce. “Easter Rock,” Mardi Gras Indians,” “Quartets, African American,” (3 essays) in The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (Folklore Volume). Ed. by Glen Hinson and William Ferris. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.  

___.  With Fehintola Mosadomi, “Cultural Continuity: Masking Traditions of the Black Mardi Gras Indians and the Yoruba Egungun, in Orisa: Yoruba Gods and Spiritual Identity. Ed. by Toyin Falola, African World Press, 2005. 

Jaina, Nick. "The Birth of the Drum Set." Smithsonian Folkways Magazine.(Winter-Spring, 2015).  

Jelly-Schapiro, Joshua. “In Congo Square.”  The Nation. December 29, 2008.  

Johnson, Jerah. “Congo Square: LaPlace Publique.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas, (Winter 1997-98): 58-65.  

___.   “New Orleans’s Congo Square: An Urban Setting for Early Afro-American Culture Formation.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 32, no. 2 (1 April 1991): 117-157.  

Jones. LeRoi. Blues People: The Negro Experience in White America and The Music that Developed from It. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 1963.  


Kmen, Henry A.  Music in New Orleans - The Formative Years 1791-1841.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.  

____. “The Roots of Jazz and the Dance in Place Congo:  A Re-Appraisal.”     Inter-American Musical Research Yearbook, Vol. VIII.  (1972): 5-17.  

____. Singing and Dancing in New Orleans : A Special History of the Birth and Growth of Balls & Opera 1791-1841.  Ann Arbor : University Microfilm, Inc, 1966.  

Koenig, Karl. Sonic Boom: Drums, Drummers & Drumming in Early Jazz. Covington. LA: Basin Street Press, 1990.  

LaChance, Paul. “The 1809 Immigration of Saint-Dominique Refugees.” In The Road Louisiana: The Saint-Domingue Refugees, 1792-1809, edited by Carl A. Brasseaux & Glen R. Conrad, 245-284. Lafayette: The Center for Louisiana Studies, 1992.  

Landeck, Beatrice.  Echoes of Africa in Folk Songs of the Americas. New York: D. McKay Co., 1969.  

Latrobe, Henry Benjamin. The Journals of Benjamin Latrobe 1799- 1820 From Philadelphia to New Orleans. Vol. 3. Edited by Edward C. Carter II, John C. Van Horne, Lee W,  Formwalt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980.  

Lief, Shane T. “Staging New Orleans: The Contested Space of Congo Square.” Tulane  University, Thesis (2011).   

Long, Carolyn Morrow. "Voudou", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson.  Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published April 3, 2013  

___.  "The Tomb of Marie Laveau on St. Louis Cemetary No.1" Louisiana Cultural Vistas Web Exclusives, Fall 2015.  

___.  "The Cracker Jack: A Hoodoo Drugstore in the 'Cradle of Jazz'" in Louisiana Cultural Vistas, Spring 2014.  

Maultsby, Portia K. “Africanisms in African-American Music.” In Africanisms in American Culture, ed. Joseph E. Holloway, pp.185-210. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.  

Medley, Keith Weldon, “New Orleans Congo Square, African Seeds in American Soil,” New Orleans Tribune (August, 1986).  

Mendy, Greer Goff.  Black Dance in Louisiana: Guardian of a Culture. New Orleans Tekrema Center for African Diaspora Cultural Literacy, 2017.  

Monroe, Nina.  Bayou Ballads, Twelve Folk Songs from Louisiana.  New York: G. Schirmer, Inc, 1921.  

Moreau De Saint-Mery, Mederic-Louis-Elie. A Civilization That Perished:  The Last Years of White Colonial Rule in Haiti. Translated, abridged & edited by Ivor D. Spencer.  Lanham, Md.:  University Press of America, 1985.  

___.  Dance.  Translated by Lily and Baird Hastings. Philadelphia:  A Dance Horizon Publication, 1976.  

____.  Description Topographique, Physique, Civile, Politique et Historique de la Partie Francaise de l’Isle Saint-Dominque. Philadelphia: Chez l’auteur, 1797.  

Mulira, Jessie Gaston. "The Case of Voodoo." In Africanisms in American Culture.  Edited by Joseph Holloway, 34-67.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.  

Neth, Mary. "Stealing Steps: African American Dance and American Culture." American Quarterly, 1988 Mar; 50 (1): 158-65.  

Nettel, Reginald.  “Historical Introduction to ‘La Calinda.”  Music & Letters.  Vol. XXVII. (1946):  59-62.  

Nickerson, Camille Lucie.  Africo-Creole Music in Louisiana.  Thesis.  Oberlin Conservatory of Music, 1932.  

Nketia, J.H. Kwabena. The Music of Africa.  New York:  W.W. Norton & Company, 1974.  

___. “Drums, Dance, and Song.” Atlantic Monthly.  CCIII (April, 1959), 69-72.  

___. “African Roots of Music in the Americas: An African View.” In Report of the 12th Congress, pp. 82-88. London: American Musicological Society; In Africanisms in American Culture, Joseph E. Holloway, ed., pp. 185-210. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.  

Nunez, Chandra. “Praline or "Pecan Candy" Vendors,” New Orleans Historical, accessed November 29, 2015,  

___.  "Just like Ole' Mammy used to Make: Reinterpreting New Orleans African American Praline Vendors as Entrepreneurs." University of New Orleans, Master’s Thesis, 2011.  

____. “Sweet Success.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas 23 (Fall 2012): 87-91.  

Reviews the history and continued popularity of pralines in New Orleans. 

Parham, Angel Adams. “Congo Square as a Lieu de Souvenir in New Orleans: Race, Place, and the Complexities of Blackness,” in Sweet Spots: In-Between Spaces in New Orleans edited by Teresa A. Toulouse and Barbara C. Ewell. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2018.  

___.  American Routes: Racial Palimpsests and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 2017.  

=Provides a comparative and historical analysis of the migration, integration, and generational lineage of white and free black refugees from nineteenth century St. Domingue/Haiti to Louisiana. 

Pasquier, Michael T. "Code Noir of Louisiana", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. January 6, 2011.   

Powell, Lawrence.  The Accidental City: Improvising New Orleans. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2013 

Provides a comprehensive history of New Orleans from its founding through American statehood in 1812. 

Peterson, Clara Gottschalk, Creole Songs From New Orleans in the Negro Dialect.  New Orleans: L. Grunewald, c.1909. 

Raeburn, Bruce. “Traditional New Orleans Jazz,” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed.  David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published March 27, 2013. 

Roach, Joseph. “Deep Skin: Reconstructing Congo Square,” In African American Performance and Theater History: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. 

___.  “Mardi Gras Indians and Others: Genealogies of American Performance.” Theatre Journal 44, no. 4 (1 December 1992): 461-483. 

Rodrigue, John C. "Slavery in French Colonial Louisiana", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana.  Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, March 11, 2014. 

___.  "Slavery in Spanish Colonial Louisiana," In KnowLA Encyclopedia of  Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, March 7, 2014. 

Ruff, Joseph Carl. "String Instruments in Early New Orleans Jazz." Tulane University. Master’s Thesis, 1988. 

Sadler, Cora. "Creole Songs." University of Michigan. 1939. Masters Thesis. 

Salvaggio, Ruth. Hearing Sappho in New Orleans: The Call of Poetry from Congo Square to the Ninth Ward. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press (2012). 

Sandke, Randy. Where the Dark and the Light Folks Meet: Race and the Mythology, Politics, and Business of Jazz. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2010. 

Sakakeeny, Matt. "Brass Bands of New Orleans", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010. Article published May 19, 2011.   

___. "Indian Rulers: Mardi Gras Indians and New Orleans Funk,” The Jazz Archivist. Vol. XVI (2002). 

___. "Jazz Funerals and Second Line Parades" In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published September 9, 2015. 

___. "Mardi Gras Indians", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David  Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published October 1, 2012. 

___.  "New Orleans Music as a Circulatory System", In Music Research Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Fall 2011). Published by: Center for Black Music Research - Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press. 

___. Roll With It: Brass Bands in the Streets of New Orleans. Duke University Press. 2013. 

Provides an account of the lives and of musicians in three major brass bands in New Orleans who are icons in their traditions yet marginalized in society.  Salaam, Kalamu Ya. “Clapping On Two and Four.” Originally published in Louisiana Folklife Festival booklet, 2001. 

___. "New Orleans Mardi Gras Indians and Tootie Montana." New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art, 1997.

Saucier, Corinne-Lelia. Louisiana Folk-tales and Songs in French Dialects with Linguistic Notes. George Peabody College for Teachers, 1923. 

Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. 

Seiferth, Eric. From Congo Square to Europe—and back: music of the African diaspora in New Orleans. New Orleans: The Historic New Orleans Collection, 2019.—and-back-music-african-diaspora-new-orleans

Siler, Charles. “A Commentary: African Cultural Retentions in Louisiana.“ Louisiana Folklife Booklet.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana Division of the Arts, 2001. 

Simpson, George Eaton. “Peasant Songs and Dances of Northern Haiti.” The Journal of Negro History,Vol.25, No.2 (April, 1940): 203-215. 

Sloat, Susanna, ed. Caribbean Dance from Abakua to Zouk: How Movement Shapes Identity.  Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 2002. 

Smith, Michael. "Buffalo Bill and the Mardi Gras Indians." 64 Parishes. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, New Orleans, 

_____.  The Mardi Gras Indians of New Orleans. Gretna: Pelican Publishing Company, 1993. 

Smith, Pamela Jo. "Caribbean Influences on Early New Orleans Jazz." 1986. Tulane University, Masters Thesis. 

Southern, Eileen.  The Music of Black Americans.  New York:  Norton & Company, 1971. 

Stearns, Marshall and Jean Stearns. Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance. New York: Macmillan Co., 1968. 

Stewart, Jack. "Cuban Influences on New Orleans Music." 

Sublette, Ned. The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2009. 

___.  Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2007. 

Swenson, John. "Indian Generations." Smithsonian Folkways Magazine (Winter-Spring 2015). 

Tattlin, Isadora. Cuba Diaries: An American Housewife in Havana.  

Teutsch, Matthew. “Performance Traditions and the “Mardi Gras Indians” in New Orleans,” in Black Perspectives. 2018. 

Tietze, Richard L. "Review of The Roots of African Jazz Conference: A Multicultural Challenge" in the Journal of Performing Arts, School of Performing Arts. Accra: University of Ghana, 2011, Vol.4. No.2 pp. 81-100 

“Tootie Montana” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana  Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. April 3, 2013. 

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African & Afro-American Art & Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1984. 

___. "Kongo Influences on African-American Artistic Culture." In Africanisms in American Culture, ed. Joseph E. Holloway, pp.148-184. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. 

Thorpe, Edward. Black Dance. New York: The Overlook Press, 1990. 

Turner, Richard Brent. “Mardi Gras Indians and Second Lines/Sequin Artists and Rara Bands: Street Festivals and Performances in New Orleans and Haiti.” Journal of Haitian Studies 9, no. 1 (1 April 2003): 124-156. 

Unruh, Amy Elizabeth, "The Role of Early Exposure to African-derived Music in Shaping an  American Musical Pioneer from New Orleans." Dissertation. Kent State University: 2009.!etd.send_file?accession=kent1257865487&disposition=inline 

Voss, Barbara Anna. "The Mississippi River and the Development of American Folk Culture." 1980.  Tulane University. PhD. Dissertation. 

Wagner, Bryan. The Life and Legend of Bras-Coupé: The Fugitive Slave Who Fought the Law, Ruled the Swamp, Danced at Congo Square, Invented Jazz, and Died for Love. Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 2019. 

___.  The Wild Tchoupitoulas. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019. 

Walker, Daniel E. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. 

Walker, Shelia (ed). African Roots/American Cultures: Africa in the Creation of the Americas. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001. 


Waterman, Richard Alan. “African Influence on the Music of the Americas.” In Mother Wit from the Laughing Barrel: Readings in the Interpretation of Afro-American Folklore, ed. Alan Dundes, pp. 81-94. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1973. 

Widmer, Ted. “The Invention of Memory: Congo Square and African Music in Nineteenth Century New Orleans.” Revue française d’études américaines 98 (1 December 2003): 69-78.

Winans, Robert (ed). Banjo Roots and Branches (Music in American Life). Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2018 

White, Michael. "Recovery and Rebirth of a New Orleans Jazz Life." Smithsonian Folkways  Magazine (Winter-Spring 2015).  

___.  White, Michael G. 1984, "The New Orleans Brass Band: Nature Style and Social Significance." Xavier Review. New Orleans: Xavier University, 1984. 

___. "Evolution of a Cultural Tradition." Cultural Vistas (Winter), 1991. 

Whitfield, Irène Thérèse.  “Louisiana French Folk Songs,” Published as Louisiana French Folk Songs, New York: Dover Publications, 1969 [1939]. 1935.  

Wood, Minter. "Life in New Orleans in the Spanish Period." 1938. Tulane University. Thesis 

Times Picayune, December 5, 1839, (Location of business buildings to Congo Square)

Times Picayune, March 22, 1846, “Congo Square: The Master of Ceremonies”

Times Picayune, December 22, 1848, “Congo Square”

Daily Crescent, October 15, 1850, “The Place d'Armes”

Times Picayune - January 31, 1872 (Circus performance)

New Orleans Item - March 6, 1881 “Dan Rice's Circuses”

New Orleans Item - April 9, 1881 (Outdoor gospel meeting of the Evangelist Mr. Haskell and his Free Gospel Mission choir of young ladies in Congo Square)

Times Picayune - October 26, 1917 (Metropolitan Opera, New York to base ballet entitled “The Dance of the Place Congo” on Sunday gatherings in Congo Square)

New Orleans Item - October 28, 1917 (Congo Square Dance to be staged by Metropolitan Opera Company)

Times Picayune - January 7, 1951 (Discussion to erect monument to Andrew Jackson and move Place d' Armes to Congo Square)

Times Picayune - April 16, 1968 (Jazz Festival is being staged on the site where it had its genesis)

Times Picayune - November 14, 1981 (Dancing and Congo Square)

Advocate (Baton Rouge) – August 15, 1982 (Congo Square and Armstrong Park)

State Times Advocate - October 17, 1990 (Voodoo rituals, Dances, Tourists)

Le Code Noir , written and produced by Tommy Myrick artistic director, Voices in the Dark Repertory Company,  

Big Chief Victor Harris: Fi Yi Yi. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (3:51)

Big Queen Cherice Harrison Nelson, Guardians of the Flame, 2009. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (5:00)

Congo Square Sunday the 26th of June with Titos Sompa from The Congo and Drummers

Congo Square – The People, Their Music, the Songs, and the Influence on Jazz, commentary by Wynton Marsalis and Gerald Early. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South

Congo Square - Odadaa! Excerpts from “Congo Square” Performance with Wynton Marsalis, Yacub Addy and the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra

Cutumba Performing Son. (2008). at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South (4:14)

“Faubourg Tremé: The Untold Story of Black New Orleans,” documentary film directed by Dawn Logsdon and written by Lolis Eric Elie (2008).

Haiti and the Music of Congo Square. Jazz and Heritage Festival Panel Discussion: Luther Gray, Royce Osborne, Freddi Williams Evans, (May2011). Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

How to Play the Son Clave. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South

Indian Red (Theme song of Mardi Gras Indians) sung by Tremé Brass and Indian Band Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Island of Saint Louis, Senegal (UNESO/HNK). Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Jazz: A Film by Ken Burns
This film follows the growth and development of jazz, which began in New Orleans.

Journey to the House of Slaves on Gorée Island, Senegal (“House of Slaves” portion begins about 4 minutes into the film.) senegal-house-of-slaves-portion-begins-about-4-minutes-into-the-film/

“Kongo Vodou”
 Excerpt from the documentary, "The Living Gods of Haiti" by Maya Deren. Vodou Petwo/Kongo is popular in both Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Its influences are mostly from the Kongo empire. The music and dance of the Kongo peoples have influenced all sorts of secular music in Dominican Re

Lady Buck Jumpers (Social Aid and Pleasure Club) Annual Second Line Parade. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

La Tumba Francesca 1961. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Leyla McCalla: Talking Banjos, Haiti and the American Cover-Up
Afropop Worldwide

Lucumi- the Rumbero of Cuba. Tony Gatlif film. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (2:31) (6:13)

Luther Gray. Sunday Gathering in Congo Square + New Generation Jam
Present-day Sunday gathering in Congo Square with singing, drumming and dancing

Mardi Gras Indian (Pretty Pretty) St. Joseph Night. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Michelle Gibson. Second Line Aesthetic in Jacmel – New Waves! Ayiti 2014

Portrait of a Chief. Chief’s NAME Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (10:00)

Queen B: Portrait of Littdell Banister- Big Queen of the Creole Wild West Mardi Gras Indians
Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Rara in Gonayiv, Haiti

Rara Music of Haiti. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (5:18)

Rumba Guaguanco (Cuba). Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (3:10)

Rumba Columbia. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (14:56)

Rumba Mantanza. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South (13:36)

Second Line Dancing Steps. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (0:41)

Second Line Funeral Procession for Juanita Brooks. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Skull and Bone Mardi Gras Indian Gang. Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South. (8:57)

The Voices of Congo Square, produced by Big Chief Shaka and Naimah Zulu of Golden Feather Mardi Gras Indian Gallery.

“Tootie’s Last Suit,” Lisa Katzman, director.

Tumba Francesa- Mason Franco (Haitian Cuban Dance). Music Rising at Tulane University – The Musical Cultures of the Gulf South.

Bruce Raeburn, Curator of the Hogan Jazz Archive, Tulane University, with Ned Sublette
Afropop Worldwide,

Donald Harrison, Jazz musician and Big Chief of Congo Nation, talks to Ned Sublette
Afropop Worldwide

Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, author of the landmark work Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century discusses deep Louisiana history with Ned Sublette
Afropop Worldwide,

Robert Farris Thompson, “A Tango” with Ned Sublette
Afropop Worldwide,

The Prehistory of New Orleans: Treasures from the Hogan Jazz Archives, Tulane University, produced by Ned Sublette
Afropop Worldwide,

Bamboula, Trinidad Negro Dance, composed by John Ulrich, conducted by Clarke, Herbert , performed by Sousa's Band

Fiddler of Congo Square—Bilal (gogi) by Bilal Abdurahman
From Echoes of Timbuktu and Beyond in Congo Square, U.S.A.

Kaplan-Levenson, Laine, producer. “New Orleans: 300 // Bulbancha: 3000.” Tripod: New Orleans at 300.

African and Afro-American Drums
African and Afro-American Drums is an examination of African drumming and its influence on the music of the Americas. Representing eight countries in the American continents, Harold Courlander has compiled an anthology of drum music from three continents and explores its various uses as well as chronicles the evolution of drum music. Extensive liner notes accompany this album and include a transcription of Haitian Juba Dance drums by George Herzog.

African Musical Instruments, by Bilal Abdurahman
This 1980 release introduces classrooms to the instruments, rhythms, and sounds of Africa. With the zummarra (double-reed oboe), darabuka (hand drum), and masanka (one-string viol), listeners will get a feel for the music from three different regions of the African continent: the Islamic-influenced north, West Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. The liner notes include a detailed sample lesson plan and suggested activities to further engage students with the music. music-childrens-islamica/music/album/smithsonian

African Rhythms and Instruments, Vol.1 (Maliniger/Ghana/Nigeria) (Various Artists) New York: Lyrichord, 1993.

Afro–Cuban Drum Music from Smithsonian Folkways
When Africans were taken to the Americas in the slave trade, they brought with them a wealth of musical traditions-particularly dense, complex, and polyrhythmic drum music- that was central to their daily lives. African drum music is anchored by a repeating pattern played by bells and/or rattles, while drums play designated call-and-response patterns. Call and response also occurs in vocal music; the leader sings and a chorus responds. These traditions carried over to Afro-Cuban music, particularly in sacred musical styles such as performed in Santería, which feature double-sided batá drums and rhythmic patterns for different deities. Afro-Cuban drum styles, including bembé, rumba, palo, and batá.–cuban-drum-music-from-smithsonian-folkways

Black Music of Two Worlds (Various Artists)
John Storm Roberts, recorder and producer examines the meeting of African, Arab, and European musical traditions to create a new tradition in the New World.

Blues Routes: Heroes and Tricksters: Blues and Jazz Work Songs and Street Music
Blues Routes is a resonant almanac of blues styles and blues-related music and musicians including: Memphis barrelhouse and Harlem parlor piano players; blues guitarists from the Delta and Piedmont, San Francisco and Chicago; Kansas City and New Orleans jazz masters; hambone call-and-response and Mardi Gras Indian chants; Texas jump blues and Louisiana Creole zydeco; minstrel and jazz banjo men; street go-go bucket-drummers and railroad track-lining gandy dancers. In this fin de siècle collection, the diversity of American blues and blues-influenced styles and the unity of their African ancestral heartbeats can be heard in great performances recorded live at the influential Folk Masters concert and radio series.

Caribbean Folk Music, Vol. 1 (Various Artists)
Includes songs and dance music that represents fifteen English, Spanish, and French speaking Caribbean countries.

Collection of Recordings

Congo To Cuba (Afro-Latino, Salsa, Guajira, Son Cubano) by Putamayo
This compilation by Putumayo World Music examines the connection between modern African music and Cuban styles.

Creole Songs of Haiti
This recording combines vocal interpretations of Vodou (an Afro-Haitian religion) ceremonial songs and popular secular melodies by legendary Haitian singer, dancer and folklorist Emerante de Pradines and the all-male folklorique chorus Michele Dejan Group. Recorded by Harold Courlander during the 1940s movement folklorique—a period revaluing the traditional arts and practices of the Haitian peyizan (peasants), de Pradines maintains a traditional troubadour-like performance of songs while the Michele Dejan Group arranges all traditional tunes into liturgical or full chorale settings.

Drum Music from Smithsonian Folkways
When Africans were taken to the Americas in the slave trade, they brought with them a wealth of musical traditions-particularly dense, complex, and polyrhythmic drum music- that was central to their daily lives. African drum music is anchored by a repeating pattern played by bells and/or rattles, while drums play designated call-and-response patterns. Call and response also occurs in vocal music; the leader sings and a chorus responds. These traditions carried over to Afro-Cuban music, particularly in sacred musical styles such as performed in Santería, which feature double-sided batá drums and rhythmic patterns for different deities. Afro-Cuban drum styles, including bembé, rumba, palo, and batá.

Echoes of Timbuktu and Beyond in Congo Square, U.S.A., by Bilal Abdurahman
"Kings, Queens and lesser royal-emeshed in a web of til and toil; They crossed a sea in great despair from Timbuktu to Congo Square." This collection of music and poetry by Bilal Abdurahman is an investigation of the roots of African-American music. His awareness of the unmistakable influences of African musical traditions on jazz is shown on this album as he plays various African instruments including the balaphone [balafon] and the halam[xalam] in the music which accompanies his jazz poetry.

Footnotes to Jazz, Vol. 1: Baby Dodds Talking and Drum Solos
Jazz drummer Baby Dodds as he demonstrates and discusses elements of his solos making it entertaining as well as educational.

Gimme My Money Back! The Treme Brass Band
The Treme Brass Band, founded in 1990, presents a mix of original and traditional arrangements and features performers are Kirk Joseph of the Dirty Dozen Brass Band and Kermit Ruffins.

Jamaican Folk Songs, by Louise Bennett
Jamaican singer and folklorist Louise Bennett sings Jamaican folk songs, work songs, dancing songs and banana-boat-loading songs. Included are parables, cautionary tales and opportunities for poking fun.

Jazz / Some Beginnings - 1913-1926 (Various Artists)
This compilation features sounds of vaudeville banjoes, dance orchestras, novelty songs, blues singers, and the first recording of New York stride piano. It also features artists who contributed to the early development of this genre.

Man’s Early Musical Instruments (Various Artists), edited by Curt Sachs (Various Artists)

Music of Haiti: Vol. 1, Folk Music of Haiti (Various Artists)
A collection are songs, ritual drumming and chanting, and Congo, Dahomey and Ibo musical musical traditions from the pre-slave era in the world (even in comparison to the musical practices of these African regions now).

Music of Haiti: Vol. 2, Drums of Haiti (Various Artists)
From the work of folklorist, ethnographer and ethnomusicologist Harold Courlander, who recorded drummers playing the manman, moyen, and bébé drums of vodoun.

Music of Haiti: Vol. 3, Songs and Dances of Haiti (Various Artists)
Folklorist, ethnographer and ethnomusicologist Harold Courlander, known for documenting the “vast unwritten literature, dances, music” of the Haitian people, released these field recordings from the rural as well as urban areas of Haiti before nearly any other recordings were available. world/album/smithsonian

Music of New Orleans, Vol. 1: Music of the Streets: Music of Mardi Gras (Various Artists)
Recorded between 1954 and 1958 from the streets of New Orleans and includes vegetable peddlers' street cries, musical saw and brass bands, a shoeshine boy's hambone, and more.

Music of New Orleans, Vol. 3: Music of the Dance Halls (Various Artists)
Features the rich history of dance band music in the Big Easy.

Negro Folk Music of Africa and America (Various Artists)
Compiled in 1951 and produced by Harold Courlander, this sample of musical styles from Africa, and the African diaspora in South America, the Caribbean, and the Southern United States demonstrates the continuation of African musical traditions into The New World.

New Orleans Brass Bands: Through the Streets of the City (Various Artists)
This album brings together for the first time three musical generations that represent three dominant styles of brass bands. Featured are the classic sound of the Liberty Brass Band, the modern-yet-traditional Tremé Brass Band, and the funk, rap, and “bounce” influenced Hot 8 Brass Band.

New Orleans Playground, presented by Putumayo Kids
This collection of songs is playful romp through the musical landscape of New Orleans.

Negro Melodies: Twenty-four Nego Melodies by Samuel Coleridege-Taylor. Albany: Albany Records, 2007.

Oscar "Papa" Celestin: 1950s Radio Broadcasts
This recording features broadcasts of Oscar “Papa” Celestin (1884–1954), trumpeter and vocalist, pioneer of New Orleans jazz, and leader of the Original Tuxedo Orchestra, which had weekly broadcasts on coast-to-coast radio.

Rhythms of Rapture: Sacred Musics of Haitian Vodou
Features recent innovations and traditional roots of this potent music. Cuts from live Vodou ceremonies are juxtaposed with performances by well-known Haitian artists, such as Boukman Experyans, RaRa Machine, Boukan Ginen and RAM. A cascade of sounds—Haitian Kreyol, the blowing of a conch shell, powerful drumming, electric guitar, synthesizers, sounds of clay pots, bells, and gourd rattles—build compelling rhythmic cross-currents. Enclosed notes examine the music’s political and spiritual base. Portions of the proceeds from the sale of this recording go to benefit Haitian grassroots community projects. 20 tracks.

Roots of Black Music in America (Various Artists)
This two volume-collection produced by Samuel Charters explores instrumental and vocal music from African cultures and African American musicians in the southern United States, examining the influence of its predecessors.

Sound, Rhythm, Rhyme and Mime for Children, by Bilal Abdurahman

Sounds of Haiti
Some say that Haiti has been in perpetual revolution for 200 years. If so, then that revolution has a soundtrack: one that began with the rattle of the Taino caciques; that invokes healing and fighting spirits with the drums and chants of rada and petwo in Vodou; and that continues to express the appetite for freedom through the sly double meanings (betiz) in the songs of Carnival and rara, the cathartic dance rhythms of konpa and the compelling global edge of mizik rasin (roots music). The music of Haiti is a synthesis of Taino, African, and European music created out of often violent encounters, but has come to reflect great pride in their independent nation.

Street Cries and Creole Songs of New Orleans, by Adelaide Van Wey
On this unique album, Adelaide van Wey sings Creole songs in the distinctive patois of New Orleans and performs street cries from the eastern United States. Zither accompaniment adds an enigmatic touch to each rhyme.

The Black History of the Banjo, produced by Ben Richmond
Afropop Worldwide

The Champion Steel Bands of Trinidad
Headliners at Carnival and pan competitions, these six champion steel bands from Trinidad offer listeners songs that hum gently or dance wildly. Participating ensembles are the Katzenjammers, The Invaders, The Fascinators, the Southern All Stars, The Highlanders, and, notably, the all-female Girl Pat Steelband. This field recording was made by Emory Cook.

The Cuban Danzón: Its Ancestors and Descendents
These recordings represent a collection of masterpieces, which will now be preserved as an important part of the archives documenting the history of Cuban music. We hope that they will be used by this and future generations in the study and appreciation of Latin music..."

The Fertile Crescent: Haiti, Cuba and Louisiana, produced by Ned Sublette
Afropop Worldwide

The Recordings of Alan Lomax in Haiti in 1936-1937
Lecture and presentation from New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival, 2011.

Afropop Worldwide
An award-winning radio program, podcast and online magazine dedicated to music from Africa and the African diaspora.

Archives of African American Music and Culture
Indiana University

Candombe (History, maps, photos, links for CDs)
At the dawn of the 19th Century, Montevideo's (Uruguay) Establishment was deeply troubled by the existence of the candombes, which they indistinctly called tambo or tangó. They banned them and harshly punished their participants, considering the dances a threat to public morals. In 1808 the citizens of Montevideo requested that the governor repress these dances even more severely and "prohibit the tangós of the blacks." (from the book "Candombe" by Ruben Carambula). In Africa, Tambor and the person playing it are defined by the same word, Tambor.

Preserving the stories of American via music, films and filmmakers, etc.

Haitian Music

Louisiana Digital Library
Over 400,000 items from Louisiana archives, libraries, museums, and other repositories.

Marcus Christian Collection. “The Negro in Louisiana,” University of New Orleans, 1942.

Roots Institute
A comprehensive bibliography of sources related to African Diaspora Music and Expressive Culture (i.e., The African Background of American Culture through the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade). Compiled by Michael Stone, Hartwick College. Recommended for studying jazz history.

Vodou Archive
Documents, photographs, videos pertaining to Haitian Vodou, Haitian Creole, and Haitian culture, University of Florida Digital Library Center

American Routes
Radio show produced in New Orleans explores the many streams of America’s music through stories, documentaries, interviews, etc.

The Mississippi: River of Song
A multi-media project for the Smithsonian Institution that explores the musical legacy of musicians, towns and states along the Mississippi River. Teacher’s Guide:

America’s Musical Journey
Educator’s Guide