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Adams, Jessica (ed), Micahel P.Bibler, and Cécile Accilien. Just Below South: Intercultural performance in the Caribbean and the U.S. South. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007.  

 

Ancelet, Bary Jean.  Lomax in Louisiana: Trials and Triumph. Folklife in Louisiana http://www.louisianafolklife.org/LT/Articles_Essays/LFMlomax.html  

 

Armstrong, Louis 1954, Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.  

 

Asbury, Herbert 1938, The French Quarter: an Informal History of the New Orleans Underworld. New York: Garden City Publishing Co.  

 

Barnes, Bruce Sunpie and Rachel Breunlin. "The Last Brass Band? Musical Mentorship and  Social Justice Organizing." in Smithsonian Folkways Magazine (Winter-Spring 2015). http://www.folkways.si.edu/magazine-winter-spring-2015-the-last-brass-band-musical-mentorship-and-social-justice-organizing  

 

Beasley, Cecily Reeves. "Creole and Afro-Creole Music of Louisiana: Its Origin and Influence", Florida State University, 1976. Ph,d. Dissertation.  


 

Becker, Cynthia. “New Orleans Mardi Gras Indians: Mediating Racial Politics from the Backstreets to Main Street.” African Arts 46, no. 2 (Summer 2013): 36.  

 

Berry, Jason. 1988. “African Cultural Memory in New Orleans Music,” Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 8, No. 1 : pp. 3-12.  

 

___.  City of a Million Dreams: A History of New Orleans at Year 300. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2021.

____. “The Rhythm of Congo Square: Dances That Rocked the City.” New Orleans Magazine 45, No. 10 (July 2011): 42 http://www.myneworleans.com/New-Orleans-Magazine/July-2011/The-Rhythm-of-Congo-Square/  

 

Berry, Lemuel, Jr. 1991, "The Impact of Creole Music on Jazz." The Second Line, vol. 43, no.- 1,9-10.  

 

Brown, Robert N. “Don’t Bow Down on that Dirty Ground: A Photographic Essay of the Mardi Gras Indians of New Orleans.” Focus on Geography 57, no. 3 (2014): 103-113.  

 

Burns, Francis P.  “The Black Code: A Brief History of the Origin, Statutory Regulation  and Judicial Sanction of Slavery in Louisiana.” In The Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial Series in Louisiana History, vol. XIII, An Uncommon Experience Law and Judicial Institutions in Louisiana 1803-2003, edited by Judith Schafer & Warren M. Billings, 305-311. Lafayette: The Center for Louisiana Studies, 1997.   

 

Cable, George Washington.  The Dance in Place Congo & Creole Slave Songs.  New Orleans: Synoeceosial Farukvon Turk, 1976.  

Originally published in 1886, contains Creole slave songs, dance phrases and fragments of descriptions, and iconic illustrations by E.W. Kemble. 

 

Caffery, Joshua Clegg. Traditional Music in Coastal Louisiana: The 1934 Lomax Recordings. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 2013.  

 

Campanella, Richard. Geographies of New Orleans, Urban Fabrics Before the Storm. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2006.  

Provides historical sources, maps, graphs, and photos that explain the geography and built environment of New Orleans. 

 

Cataliotti, Robert. "'Some Kind of Something Is Going on Down There' Crossroads at Congo Square." Smithsonian Folkways Magazine.(Winter-Spring 2015). http://www.folkways.si.edu/magazine-winter-spring-2015-some-kind-of-something-is-going-on-down-there-crossroads-at-congo-square/article/smithsonian  

 

Charters, Samuel. A Language of Song: Journeys in the Musical World of the African Diaspora. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.  

 

Chernoff, John Miller. African Rhythm and African Sensibility: Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical Idioms. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1981.  

 

Christy, Edwin Pearce, Christy’s Plantation Melodies, No. 4.  Philadelphia: Fisher & Brothers, 1854.    

 

Courlander, Harold.  Negro Folk Music, United States of America.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1963.  

 

____. “Musical Instruments of Haiti.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (1941): 371-383.  

 

 ____. “Musical Instruments of Cuba.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 28, No.  2 (1942): 227-240.  

 

Crutcher, Michael. Tremé: Race and Place in a New Orleans Neighborhood (Geographies of Justice and Social Transformation Ser., 5). Athen: University of Georgia Press, 2010.  

 

Daniel, Yvonne. Dancing Wisdom: Embodied Knowledge in Haitian Vodou, Cuban Yoruba, and Bahian Candomblé. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2005.  

 

DeFrantz, Thomas F. Dancing Many Drums: Excavations in African American Dance. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2002.  

 

Dewulf, Jeroen. From the Kingdom of Kongo to Congo Square: Kongo Dances and the Origins of the Mardi Gras Indians. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2017.  

____. The Pinkster King and the King of Kongo: The Forgotten History of American’s Dutch-Owned Slaves. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2017.   

Donaldson, Gary A. “A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” The Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (1984): 63-72.  

 

Evans, Freddi Williams. Come Sunday: A Young Reader’s History of Congo Square. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2017.   

 

___.  Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 2011.  

A comprehensive study of Congo Square that also connects the people and their cultural practices to locations in West and Central Africa and the Caribbean.  

 

___.  Congo Square: racines africaines de la Nouvelle-Orléans. Paris: la tour verte, 2012.   

 

___. “Congo Square and the Roots of Second Line Parading.” In Dancing in the Streets: Social and Pleasure Clubs of New Orleans. New Orleans: The Historic New Orleans Collection, 2021.  

 

___.  “Congo Square.” In 64 Parishes. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, September 16, 2013.  https://64parishes.org/entry/congo-square  

 

___. “Congo Square and African-American Music Culture.” In 100 Years of Now, Haus de Kulturen der Welt Online Journal, Berlin, Germany, 2018.  

 

___  and Zada Johnson. “The Cultural Connections of New Orleans Second Line, Cuban Conga, and Haitian Rara.” In Freedom’s Dance: Social, Aid and Pleasure Clubs in New Orleans, Louisiana State University Press, 2018.   

 

___. “A WINDOW TO AFRICA: Enslaved Africans Perpetuated Cultural and Commercial Practices at Congo Square.” In New Orleans & The World: 1718-2018 Tricentennial Anthology. New Orleans: Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2017.   

 

___. “The Forward.” In Freedom in Congo Square. New York: Little Bee Books, 2016.   

 

___. "Congo Square." Oxford African American Studies Center. Ed. New York: Oxford U.P., 2015.   

 

___. “African Spirituality and Religion in New Orleans’ Congo Square.” In Ashe' to Amen Exhibition Catalogue. New Orleans: Ashe Cultural Arts Center, 2015.   

 

___. “Congo Square.” In The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. Ed. Sheren Sanders, Ph.D. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2014.   

 

___. “The Popular Dances of Congo Square.” In The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. Ed. Sheren Sanders, Ph.D. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2014.   

 

___. “Kongo Music and Dance at New Orleans’s Congo Square.” In Kongo Across the Waters. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2013.   

 

___. “Congo Square.” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. New Orleans: Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 16 Sept. 2013.   

 

___. “Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas, Fall, 2011.   

 

___. “New Orleans’ Congo Square: A Cultural Landmark.” In Ancestors of Congo Square: African Art in the New Orleans Museum of Art. New Orleans: Scala Publishers, 2011.   

 

Evans, Sula Janet.  Spirit of the Orisha, translated by Omoba Adéwálé Adénlé.   

   

For those who studying Orisha music, this book contains 38 song lyrics, translations and phonetics. The book and the 2-disc set CD project are available at: ziontrinityband.com   

 

Emery, Lynne Fauley.  Black Dance in the United States from 1619 to 1970. Palo Alto: National Press Books, 1972. 

Surveys of dances performed by Africans and African Americans throughout the United States including Southern plantations, the North, the Caribbean and New Orleans.   

Emerson, Ken. Doo – dah!, Stephen Foster and the Rise of American Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.    

 

Offers an account of the life and time of Stephen Foster, considered the first songwriter to show that America could achieve cultural independence from Europe  

 

Fiehrer, Thomas, "From Quadrille to Stomp: The Creole Origins of Jazz." Popular Music, 10 (January 1991): 21-38.  

 

___.  “The African Presence in Colonial Louisiana:  An Essay on the Continuity of Caribbean Culture.” In Louisiana’s Black Heritage, edited by Robert MacDonald et. al, 3-31.  New Orleans:  Louisiana State Museum, 1979.   

 

Fi Yi Yi (Big Chief Victor Harris), Rachel Breunlin (editor). Fire In the Hole: The Spirit Work of Fi Yi Yi & Mandingo Warriors. New Orleans: University of New Orleans, 2018.  

 

Glass, Barbara. African American Dance: An Illustrated History. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2007.  

 

Godoy, Maria. “Meet The Calas, A New Orleans Tradition That Helped Free Slaves,” The Salt, What’s on Your Plate. NPR, WWNO, February 14, 2013. http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/02/10/171663336/meet-the-calas-a-new-orleans-treat-that-helped-free-slaves  

 

Gould, Virginia, “‘If I Can’t Have My Rights, I Can Have My Pleasures, and If They Won’t Give Me Wages, I Can Take Them’: Gender and Slave Labor in Antebellum New Orleans.” In The Louisiana Purchase Bicentennial Series in Louisiana History, vol XI, The African American Experience in Louisiana, Part A, edited by Charles Vincent, 340-357.  Lafayette: The Center for Louisiana Studies, 1999.    

Explores the role and prevalence of African market women (enslaved and free) in Antebellum New Orleans. 

 

Grattan, H. P. “The Origin of the Christy’s Minstrels.” The Theatre – A Month Review of the Drama, Music, and the Fine Arts. Vol. V (1882): 129-133.  

 

Gushee, Lawrence, "How the Creole Band Came To Be." Black Music Research Journal, 8, 1988.  

 

Hall, Ardencie. New Orleans Jazz Funerals: Transition to the Ancestors. New York: New York University, 1998. 

  

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo.  Africans in Colonial Louisiana.  Baton Rouge:  Louisiana State University Press, 1992.  

Discusses the ethnic origin of enslaved Africans in Louisiana and their contributions to the language, food and cultural practices in the state.  

 ___.  “Myths About Creole Culture in Louisiana.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas 12 (Summer 2001): 79-85.  

___.  Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.  

 

Hare, Maude Cuney.  Six Creole Folk Songs.  New York:  Carl Fischer, 1921.  

 

Harris, Jessica. Beyond Gumbo: Creole Fusion Food from the Atlantic Rim. New York: Simon  & Schuster, 2003.  

 

___.  Foodways to Freedom.” American Legacy (Fall/Winter 2003): 19-21. 

Explores the use of culinary skills by enslaved free women of African descent to gain status, financial freedom and political power.  

 

Hearn, Lafcadio.  “The Scenes in Cable’s Romances.” Century Magazine Nov. (1883): 40-47.  

 

Holloway, Joseph E.  “The Origins of African-American Culture.” In Africanisms in American Culture, edited by Joseph Holloway, 1-17.  Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1990.   

 

Jackson, Joyce. “Easter Rock,” Mardi Gras Indians,” “Quartets, African American,” (3 essays) in The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (Folklore Volume). Ed. by Glen Hinson and William Ferris. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.  

___.  With Fehintola Mosadomi, “Cultural Continuity: Masking Traditions of the Black Mardi Gras Indians and the Yoruba Egungun, in Orisa: Yoruba Gods and Spiritual Identity. Ed. by Toyin Falola, African World Press, 2005. 

Jaina, Nick. "The Birth of the Drum Set." Smithsonian Folkways Magazine.(Winter-Spring, 2015). http://www.folkways.si.edu/magazine-winter-spring-2015-the-birth-of-the-drum-set/article/smithsonian  

 

Jelly-Schapiro, Joshua. “In Congo Square.”  The Nation. December 29, 2008.  https://static1.squarespace.com/static/51d7149de4b01ae1310f405e/t/52c732dde4b076c49f5c17ae/1388786397063/Jelly-Schapiro_In_Congo_Square.pdf  

Johnson, Jerah. “Congo Square: LaPlace Publique.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas, (Winter 1997-98): 58-65. https://64parishes.org/congo-square-la-place-publique  

 

___.   “New Orleans’s Congo Square: An Urban Setting for Early Afro-American Culture Formation.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 32, no. 2 (1 April 1991): 117-157.  

 

Jones. LeRoi. Blues People: The Negro Experience in White America and The Music that Developed from It. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 1963.  

 


Kmen, Henry A.  Music in New Orleans - The Formative Years 1791-1841.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.  

 

____. “The Roots of Jazz and the Dance in Place Congo:  A Re-Appraisal.”     Inter-American Musical Research Yearbook, Vol. VIII.  (1972): 5-17.  

 

____. Singing and Dancing in New Orleans : A Special History of the Birth and Growth of Balls & Opera 1791-1841.  Ann Arbor : University Microfilm, Inc, 1966.  

 

Koenig, Karl. Sonic Boom: Drums, Drummers & Drumming in Early Jazz. Covington. LA: Basin Street Press, 1990.  

 

LaChance, Paul. “The 1809 Immigration of Saint-Dominique Refugees.” In The Road Louisiana: The Saint-Domingue Refugees, 1792-1809, edited by Carl A. Brasseaux & Glen R. Conrad, 245-284. Lafayette: The Center for Louisiana Studies, 1992.  

 

Landeck, Beatrice.  Echoes of Africa in Folk Songs of the Americas. New York: D. McKay Co., 1969. https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/93d55740-e674-0134-7920-0c35c573b052  

 

Latrobe, Henry Benjamin. The Journals of Benjamin Latrobe 1799- 1820 From Philadelphia to New Orleans. Vol. 3. Edited by Edward C. Carter II, John C. Van Horne, Lee W,  Formwalt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980.  

 

Lief, Shane T. “Staging New Orleans: The Contested Space of Congo Square.” Tulane  University, Thesis (2011).   

 

Long, Carolyn Morrow. "Voudou", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson.  Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published April 3, 2013  

 

___.  "The Tomb of Marie Laveau on St. Louis Cemetary No.1" Louisiana Cultural Vistas Web Exclusives, Fall 2015.  

 

___.  "The Cracker Jack: A Hoodoo Drugstore in the 'Cradle of Jazz'" in Louisiana Cultural Vistas, Spring 2014.  

                                                                                                                                                                        

Maultsby, Portia K. “Africanisms in African-American Music.” In Africanisms in American Culture, ed. Joseph E. Holloway, pp.185-210. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.  

 

Medley, Keith Weldon, “New Orleans Congo Square, African Seeds in American Soil,” New Orleans Tribune (August, 1986).  

 

Mendy, Greer Goff.  Black Dance in Louisiana: Guardian of a Culture. New Orleans Tekrema Center for African Diaspora Cultural Literacy, 2017.  

 

Monroe, Nina.  Bayou Ballads, Twelve Folk Songs from Louisiana.  New York: G. Schirmer, Inc, 1921.  

 

Moreau De Saint-Mery, Mederic-Louis-Elie. A Civilization That Perished:  The Last Years of White Colonial Rule in Haiti. Translated, abridged & edited by Ivor D. Spencer.  Lanham, Md.:  University Press of America, 1985.  

 

___.  Dance.  Translated by Lily and Baird Hastings. Philadelphia:  A Dance Horizon Publication, 1976.  

 

____.  Description Topographique, Physique, Civile, Politique et Historique de la Partie Francaise de l’Isle Saint-Dominque. Philadelphia: Chez l’auteur, 1797.  

 

Mulira, Jessie Gaston. "The Case of Voodoo." In Africanisms in American Culture.  Edited by Joseph Holloway, 34-67.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.  

 

Neth, Mary. "Stealing Steps: African American Dance and American Culture." American Quarterly, 1988 Mar; 50 (1): 158-65.  

 

Nettel, Reginald.  “Historical Introduction to ‘La Calinda.”  Music & Letters.  Vol. XXVII. (1946):  59-62.  

 

Nickerson, Camille Lucie.  Africo-Creole Music in Louisiana.  Thesis.  Oberlin Conservatory of Music, 1932. http://www.louisianafolklife.org/ThesesDissertations/looker.asp?page=453&sort=Author  

 

Nketia, J.H. Kwabena. The Music of Africa.  New York:  W.W. Norton & Company, 1974.  

 

___. “Drums, Dance, and Song.” Atlantic Monthly.  CCIII (April, 1959), 69-72.  

 

___. “African Roots of Music in the Americas: An African View.” In Report of the 12th Congress, pp. 82-88. London: American Musicological Society; In Africanisms in American Culture, Joseph E. Holloway, ed., pp. 185-210. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.  

 

Nunez, Chandra. “Praline or "Pecan Candy" Vendors,” New Orleans Historical, accessed November 29, 2015, http://neworleanshistorical.org/items/show/259.  

___.  "Just like Ole' Mammy used to Make: Reinterpreting New Orleans African American Praline Vendors as Entrepreneurs." University of New Orleans, Master’s Thesis, 2011. http://scholarworks.uno.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1127&context=td  

____. “Sweet Success.” Louisiana Cultural Vistas 23 (Fall 2012): 87-91.  

Reviews the history and continued popularity of pralines in New Orleans. 

 

Parham, Angel Adams. “Congo Square as a Lieu de Souvenir in New Orleans: Race, Place, and the Complexities of Blackness,” in Sweet Spots: In-Between Spaces in New Orleans edited by Teresa A. Toulouse and Barbara C. Ewell. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2018.  

 

___.  American Routes: Racial Palimpsests and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 2017.  

=Provides a comparative and historical analysis of the migration, integration, and generational lineage of white and free black refugees from nineteenth century St. Domingue/Haiti to Louisiana.   

Pasquier, Michael T. "Code Noir of Louisiana", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. January 6, 2011.   

Powell, Lawrence.  The Accidental City: Improvising New Orleans. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2013 

Provides a comprehensive history of New Orleans from its founding through American statehood in 1812. 

 

Peterson, Clara Gottschalk, Creole Songs From New Orleans in the Negro Dialect.  New Orleans: L. Grunewald, c.1909. 

 

Raeburn, Bruce. “Traditional New Orleans Jazz,” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed.  David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published March 27, 2013. 

 

Roach, Joseph. “Deep Skin: Reconstructing Congo Square,” In African American Performance and Theater History: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. 

 

___.  “Mardi Gras Indians and Others: Genealogies of American Performance.” Theatre Journal 44, no. 4 (1 December 1992): 461-483. 

 

Rodrigue, John C. "Slavery in French Colonial Louisiana", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana.  Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, March 11, 2014. 

 

___.  "Slavery in Spanish Colonial Louisiana," In KnowLA Encyclopedia of  Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, March 7, 2014. 

 

Ruff, Joseph Carl. "String Instruments in Early New Orleans Jazz." Tulane University. Master’s Thesis, 1988. 

 

Sadler, Cora. "Creole Songs." University of Michigan. 1939. Masters Thesis.  https://books.google.com/books/about/Creole_Songs.html?id=s2S6FQK71aIC 

 

Salvaggio, Ruth. Hearing Sappho in New Orleans: The Call of Poetry from Congo Square to the Ninth Ward. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press (2012). 

 

Sandke, Randy. Where the Dark and the Light Folks Meet: Race and the Mythology, Politics, and Business of Jazz. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2010. 

 

Sakakeeny, Matt. "Brass Bands of New Orleans", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010. Article published May 19, 2011.   

 

___. "Indian Rulers: Mardi Gras Indians and New Orleans Funk,” The Jazz Archivist. Vol. XVI (2002). http://tulane.edu/liberal-arts/music/upload/Sakakeeny_JazzArchivist.pdf 

 

___. "Jazz Funerals and Second Line Parades" In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published September 9, 2015. 

 

___. "Mardi Gras Indians", In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David  Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. Article published October 1, 2012. 

 

___.  "New Orleans Music as a Circulatory System", In Music Research Journal, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Fall 2011). Published by: Center for Black Music Research - Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press. 

 

___. Roll With It: Brass Bands in the Streets of New Orleans. Duke University Press. 2013. 

Provides an account of the lives and of musicians in three major brass bands in New Orleans who are icons in their traditions yet marginalized in society.  Salaam, Kalamu Ya. “Clapping On Two and Four.” Originally published in Louisiana Folklife Festival booklet, 2001. http://www.louisianafolklife.org/LT/Articles_Essays/clap_on_2_4.html 

 

___. "New Orleans Mardi Gras Indians and Tootie Montana." New Orleans, New Orleans Museum of Art, 1997. http://www.louisianafolklife.org/LT/Virtual_Books/Hes_Prettiest/hes_the_prettiest_tootie_montana.html

 

Saucier, Corinne-Lelia. Louisiana Folk-tales and Songs in French Dialects with Linguistic  Notes. George Peabody College for Teachers, 1923. 

 

Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. 

 

Siler, Charles. “A Commentary: African Cultural Retentions in Louisiana.“ Louisiana Folklife Booklet.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana Division of the Arts, 2001. 

 

Simpson, George Eaton. “Peasant Songs and Dances of Northern Haiti.” The Journal of Negro History,Vol.25, No.2 (April, 1940): 203-215. 

 

Sloat, Susanna, ed. Caribbean Dance from Abakua to Zouk: How Movement Shapes Identity.  Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 2002. 

 

Smith, Michael. "Buffalo Bill and the Mardi Gras Indians." 64 Parishes. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, New Orleans,  https://64parishes.org/buffalo-bill-mardi-gras-indians 

 

_____.  The Mardi Gras Indians of New Orleans. Gretna: Pelican Publishing Company, 1993. 

 

Smith, Pamela Jo. "Caribbean Influences on Early New Orleans Jazz." 1986. Tulane University, Masters Thesis. 

 

Southern, Eileen.  The Music of Black Americans.  New York:  Norton & Company, 1971. 

 

Stearns, Marshall and Jean Stearns. Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance. New York: Macmillan Co., 1968. 

 

Stewart, Jack. "Cuban Influences on New Orleans Music." http://www.arhoolie.com/Cuban_Influences_on_New_Orleans_Music.pdf 

 

Sublette, Ned. The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2009.   

___.  Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2007. 

 

Swenson, John. "Indian Generations." Smithsonian Folkways Magazine (Winter-Spring 2015). http://www.folkways.si.edu/magazine-winter-spring-2015-indian-generations/article/smithsonian 

 

Tattlin, Isadora. Cuba Diaries: An American Housewife in Havana.  

 

Teutsch, Matthew. “Performance Traditions and the “Mardi Gras Indians” in New Orleans,” in Black Perspectives. 2018. https://www.aaihs.org/performance-traditions-and-the-mardi-gras-indians-in-new-orleans/ 

 

Tietze, Richard L. "Review of The Roots of African Jazz Conference: A Multicultural Challenge" in the Journal of Performing Arts, School of Performing Arts. Accra: University of Ghana, 2011, Vol.4. No.2 pp. 81-100 

 

“Tootie Montana” In KnowLA Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana  Endowment for the Humanities, 2010--. April 3, 2013. http://www.knowla.org/entry/886/&view=summary&ref=category&refID=4 

 

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African & Afro-American Art & Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1984. 

 

___. "Kongo Influences on African-American Artistic Culture." In Africanisms in American Culture, ed. Joseph E. Holloway, pp.148-184. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. 

 

Thorpe, Edward. Black Dance. New York: The Overlook Press, 1990. 

Turner, Richard Brent. “Mardi Gras Indians and Second Lines/Sequin Artists and Rara Bands: Street Festivals and Performances in New Orleans and Haiti.” Journal of Haitian Studies 9, no. 1 (1 April 2003): 124-156. 

 

Unruh, Amy Elizabeth, "The Role of Early Exposure to African-derived Music in Shaping an  American Musical Pioneer from New Orleans." Dissertation. Kent State University: 2009. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=kent1257865487&disposition=inline 

 

Voss, Barbara Anna. "The Mississippi River and the Development of American Folk Culture." 1980.  Tulane University. PhD. Dissertation. 

 

Wagner, Bryan. The Life and Legend of Bras-Coupé: The Fugitive Slave Who Fought the Law, Ruled the Swamp, Danced at Congo Square, Invented Jazz, and Died for Love. Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 2019. 

 

___.  The Wild Tchoupitoulas. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019. 

 

Walker, Daniel E. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. 

 

Walker, Shelia (ed). African Roots/American Cultures: Africa in the Creation of the Americas. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001. 

  

Waterman, Richard Alan. “African Influence on the Music of the Americas.” In Mother Wit from the Laughing Barrel: Readings in the Interpretation of Afro-American Folklore, ed. Alan Dundes, pp. 81-94. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1973. 

 

Widmer, Ted. “The Invention of Memory: Congo Square and African Music in Nineteenth Century New Orleans.” Revue française d’études américaines 98 (1 December 2003): 69-78. https://ourblues.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/widmer-ted-invention-of-a-memory.pdf

 

Winans, Robert (ed). Banjo Roots and Branches (Music in American Life). Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2018 

 

White, Michael. "Recovery and Rebirth of a New Orleans Jazz Life." Smithsonian Folkways  Magazine (Winter-Spring 2015). http://www.folkways.si.edu/magazine-winter-spring-2015-recovery-and-rebirth-of-a-new-orleans-jazz-life  

 

___.  White, Michael G. 1984, "The New Orleans Brass Band: Nature Style and Social Significance." Xavier Review. New Orleans: Xavier University, 1984. 

 

___. "Evolution of a Cultural Tradition." Cultural Vistas (Winter), 1991. 

 

Whitfield, Irène Thérèse.  “Louisiana French Folk Songs,” Published as Louisiana French Folk Songs, New York: Dover Publications, 1969 [1939]. 1935.  

 

Wood, Minter. "Life in New Orleans in the Spanish Period." 1938. Tulane University. Thesis 

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