Many of the following scholars and culture bearers (dancers, writers, baby dolls, culinary artists, activists, and members of Mardi Gras/ Black masking Indian tribes and skull and bone gangs), along with their organizations, offer publications and on-going programs for a range of audiences     that present the history and significance of Congo Square. When available, links to websites are provided for contact information.

For references on these practices, see “Additional Sources” at the conclusion of each entry under the heading “Cultural Practices” as well as the publications and video-taped presentations from the Scholars and Culture Bears listed here.

Ausettua Amor Amenkum, dancer (New Orleans, LA) - Kumbuka African Dance and Drum Company

Tyrone “Trombone Shorty”Andrews, musician, composer (New Orleans, LA)

Bruce “Sunpie” Barnes, musician (New Orleans, LA)

Damon J. Batiste, musician, producer, cultural activist (New Orleans, LA)

David Batiste, Sr. , musician, performer, band leader (New Orleans, LA)

Monk Boudreaux , big chief, musician, recording artist (New Orleans, LA)

Mariama Curry, dancer, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Michelle Gibson , dancer, choreographer, cultural ambassador (Dallas, TX / New Orleans)

Luther Gray, drummer, cultural activist (New Orleans, LA)

Tyrone “Brother T” Henry , drummer, herbalist, entrepreneur (New Orleans, LA)

Chakula Cha Jua, actor, playwright, producer (New Orleans, LA)

Janice Kimble, baby doll (New Orleans, LA)

Merline Kimble, baby doll (New Orleans, LA)

Kia Knight , dancer, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Karen Kaia Livers, actress, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Julie Menhatti , dancer, entrepreneur, activist (New Orleans, LA)

Monique Moss, dancer, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Tommye Myrick , actor, director, producer (New Orleans, LA)

Jamilah Peters Muhammad , dancer, activist (New Orleans, LA)

Kamau Wesley Phillips , drummer, masking Indian (New Orleans, LA)

Shannon Powell, master drummer, band leader, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Herlin Riley, master drummer, cultural ambassador (New Orleans, LA)

Bill Summers, musician, author (New Orleans, LA)

Wynton Marsalis, musician (New York/New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Michael White, musician, historian, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Na’imah Zulu , dancer, producer, entrepreneur (New Orleans, LA)

Niya Zulu, dancer, educator, stilt walker (New Orleans, LA/New York)

Shaka Zulu, percussionist, producer, big chief of Golden Feather Hunters (New Orleans, LA)

Denise Augustine, tour guide, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Malik Bartholomew, tour guide, cultural activist (New Orleans, LA)

Carol Bebelle, poet, filmmaker, songwriter (New Orleans, LA)

James Borders, author, arts administrator, editor (New Orleans, LA)

Frederick “Hollywood” Delahoussaye, poet, educator, producer (New Orleans, LA)

Divine Prince Ty Emmecca, priest, activist (New Orleans, LA)

Asali DeVan Ecclesiastes, administrator, poet, author, activist (New Orleans, LA)

Sula Janet Evans, priestess, instructor of African songs (New Orleans, LA)

Denise Graves, spiritual leader, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Cherice Harrison, big queen, educator, community organizer, activist (New Orleans, LA)

Hearrest Harrison, community activist, literacy advocate (New Orleans, LA)

Ernest Johnson, community organizer, cultural activist (New Orleans, LA)

Kalinda Laveaux, voodoo priestess, singer (New Orleans, LA)

Brenda Marie Osbey, poet laureate of Louisiana, professor (New Orleans)

Zella Palmer, food historian, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Sunni Patterson, poet, author, activist (New Orleans, LA)

Kalamu ya Salaam, writer, publisher (New Orleans, LA)

Mona Lisa Saloy, poet laureate of Louisiana, professor (New Orleans, LA)

Jerome Smith, activist, advocate, community organizer (New Orleans, LA)

Yeye Luisah Teish, author, spiritual leader, keynote speaker (California/Diaspora)

Barbara Trevigne, researcher, cultural activist, spiritual leader (New Orleans, LA)

Jennifer Turner, cultural activist, literary critic (New Orleans, LA)

Vera Warren Williams , cultural activist, entrepreneur (New Orleans, LA)

The sights and sounds of brass bands are iconic components of New Orleans culture and are critical to the continued perpetuation of indigenous practices – most of which received direct influence from the gatherings in Congo Square. Brass bands are the backbone of local parades for jazz funerals, social aid and pleasure club second lines, festivals, conferences, weddings, parties and even Mardi Gras Indian Super Sunday events. Consequently, the demand for brass bands is high and the offerings range from grassroots groups that originated in churches, schools, neighborhoods and among friends to those that are considered professional – whether they play traditional, contemporary or a mixture of musical styles. Social aid and pleasure clubs (SAPC) are organized groups in the African American community that provide financial, social, and recreational support for their members and communities. They are best known for their annual parades, which take place on Sunday afternoons during the 10-month period from late August to May. Decked from head to toe in color-coordinated finery and matching accessories, SAPC members lead their hand-picked brass bands along their pre-planned routes through the streets of the city. Below is a list of some of the popular brass bands in New Orleans and links to their websites as well as a list of social aid and pleasure clubs that paraded from the 1997-98 – 2022-23 seasons.

Brass Bands

Algiers Brass Band

Big Sam's Funky Nation


Dirty Dozen Brass Band

Hot 8 Brass Band

Kermit Ruffins

Lagniappe Brass Band

Preservation Hall Jazz Band

Rebirth Brass Band

Soul Rebels Brass Band

Stooges Brass Band

To Be Continued (TBC) Brass Band

Treme Brass Band

Troy "Trombone Shorty" Andrews & Orleans Avenue

New Orleans Social Aid and Pleasure Clubs

Avenue Steppers

Big Nine

Black Men of Labor

Calliope High Steppers

Chosen Few


Devastating Ladies

Double Nine

Dumaine Street Gang

Family Ties

Fazio Steppers

Golden Trumpets

Good Fellas

Ladies and Gentlemen of Leisure

Ladies Zulu

Lady and Men Buckjumpers

Lady Jetsetters

Lady Sequence

Jolly Bunch

Jolly Bunch Sisters

Just Stepping

Men of Class

Money Wasters

New Generation

Nine Times

Nkrumah Better Boys

Ladies of Essence

Ladies Over 30

Lady Jetsetters

Ole & Nu style Felias

Original Big 7

Original Black Magic

Original Four

Original Gentlemen

Perfect Gentlemen

Pigeon Town Steppers

Popular Ladies

Positive Ladies

Prince of Wales



Scene Boosters

Second Line Jammers

Single Men

Step N Style



Tremé Sidewalk Steppers


Uptown Swingers

Valley of Silent Men

We Are One

Westbank Steppers

Women of Class

Young Men Olympian, Jr.

Young Steppers

LaVaughn Belle, visual artist (U.S. Virgin Islands)

Jerome Dewulf, Ph.D., professor, author (Latin America)

Francisco Mora Catlett, percussionist (New York, Cuban Culture)

Milteri Tucker Concepcion, dancer, choreographer, educator, author (Puerto Rico/New York)

Peniel Guerrier, dancer (Haiti/New York)

Jessica Harris, author, professor, culinary historian, (Diaspora/New York)

Segunon Koné, percussionist (Ivory Coast)

Lorraine Leu, Ph,.D., professor, author (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Dr. Kazadi wa Mukuna, ethnomusicologist, educator (Democratic Republic of the Congo/OH)

Alexey Marti, percussionist, composer, bandleader, educator (Cuba, New Orleans, LA)

Danys “La Mora” Perez, dancer (Cuba/New York)

Gloria Rolando, filmmaker and screenwriter (Havana, Cuba)

Jean-Claude Biza Sompa, dancer, percussionist (Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo)

Papa Titos Sompa, dancer (Democratic Republic of the Congo/New Orleans, LA)

Milteri Tucker, dancer (Puerto Rico/New York)

William Sabourin O’Reilly, film maker (Cuba/New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Ibrahima Seck, historian (Senegal/New Orleans, LA)

Ned Sublette, composer, researcher, author (Cuba / New York)

Sara Zewde, landscape designer, author (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Dr. L. Rosanne Adderley, historian, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Jeroen DeWulf, historian (Belgium/ Berkeley, CA)

Freddi Williams Evans, independent scholar, educator, author (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Joyce Marie Jackson, folklorist/ethnomusicologist, educator, administrator (Baton Rouge, LA)

Dr. Jessica Harris, food historian, educator (New York/New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Zada Johnson, anthropologist, educator (Chicago, IL)

Wynton Marsalis , musician (New York/New Orleans, LA)

Keith Medley , writer historian (New Orleans, LA)

Greer Goff Mendy, dancer (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Kara Olidge, educator, administrator (New Orleans, LA)

Zella Palmer, food historian (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Angel Adams Parham, historian, sociologist, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Clyde Robertson, educator, administrator (New Orleans, LA)

Kalamu ya Salaam, writer, publisher (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Matt Sakakeeny, ethnomusicologist, educator (New Orleans, LA)

Ned Sublette, historian and musician (New York)

Bill Summers, musician (New Orleans, LA)

Dr. Kim Vaz-Deville, baby doll, Mardi Gras Indian, educator, “Mystery in Motion: African-American Masking and Spirituality in Mardi Gras”

Dr. Bryan Wagner, historian, educator (Berkeley, CA)

Dr. Michael White, musician, historian, educator (New Orleans, LA)

7th Ward Creole Hunters/ 7th War Hunters

Jermaine Bossier, Big Chief, Founder

7th Ward Hard Headers

Otto “Fyyo” Dejean, Big Chief, Founder

7th Ward Warriors

Ronald “Buck” Baham, Big Chief

Donald Claude, Big Chief

Connie Dorsey, Big Queen

8th Ward Hunters

Alfred Montana, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

9th Ward Black Hatchets

Alphonse “Dowee’ Dupierre, Big Chief

Clovis Batiste, Big Chief

Wayne Washington

9th Ward Hunters

Rudy “Romeo” Bougere, Big Chief

Rudy Boougere, Sr. Big Chief, Ancestor

Robert “Robbe” Lee, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Wilbert “Will” Patterson, Flag Boy, Spy Boy

Additional Information

9th Ward Navaho

Terry Carr, Big Chief

James Derrik Magee, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Benny Ratcliff, Member

9th Ward Warriors

Algiers Warriors

Big Chief Troy Young, Founder

Apache Hunters

Preston Whitfield, Big Chief

Carlos Dunn, Second Spy Boy

Kendrick Jones, Spy Boy

Lloyd Keeler, Spy Boy

Charles Coleman, Flag Boy

Wendell Jackson, Flag Boy

Charles Henry, Flag Boy

Black Cherokee

DeShannon Shabazz, Big Chief, Founder

Black Eagles

Kendell “Shug” Trepanier, Big Chief

Lawrence Fletcher, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Jerod “Rody” Lewis, Big Chief, Ancestor

Percy “Pete” Lewis, Big Chief, Ancestor

Shumela Padnos, Big Queen

Black Feathers

Corey Rayford, Big Chief

Lionel Delpit, Sr., Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Lionel Delpit, III, Big Chief, Ancestor

Gaynell Gibson-Sorina, Big Queen

Stafford Agee, Spy Boy

Kiwi Richards, Spy Boy

Michael Daliet, Flag Boy

Theris Kirby “Butt” Valdery, Flag Boy

Black Flame / Black Flame Hunters

Jeremy Lacen, Big Chief, Founder

Black Hawk Hunters

Terrance “Tee” Williams Jr., Big Chief, Founder

Black Mohawks

Walter “Sugar Bear” Landry, Big Chief

Byron “Duck” Thomas, Big Chief, Founder

Frank Royal, Big Chief, Ancestor

Eddie “Coonow” Perkins, Big Chief, Ancestor

Chick Webb, Big Chief, Ancestor

Gilda Landry, Big Queen

Ontranekia Nixon, Second Queen

Annette Tassin, Third Queen

Miker Brachen, Gang Flag

Black Seminoles

Big Chief Ironhorse

Cyril “Six” Green, Big Chief, Ancestor Chief Keitoe

Robert Louis “Slim” Stevenson, Jr., Flag Boy

Black Spears

Blackfoot Hunters

Donald Claude, Jr., Big Chief

Donald “Dutt” Claude Sr., Big Chief

Wardell Frazier, Big Chief

Nolan “Ponchoo” Peters, Big Chief, Ancestor

Connie Dorsey, Big Queen

Black 7

Lionel “Blackfeather” Delpit, Big Chief

Ajay Joseph Mallery, Sr., Spy Boy

Black Wolf Hunters

Big Chief Nelson

Buffalo Hunters

Irving “Spoon” Scott, Big Chief

Jay Williams, Big Chief, Ancestor

Bumble Bee Hunters

Thomas “Tom” Sparks, Sr., Flag Boy (Joined in 1947)

Burning Spears

Carrollton Hunters

Carl Reed, Big Chief

Lionel Smith, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Whaley, Big Chief

Donyella Davenport, Big Queen

Reggie Henry, Spy Boy

Hassan Grant, Spy Boy

Mason Walker, Baby Spy Boy

Diamond Walker, Little Queen

Erast Harton, Jr.

Cherokee Braves

Donald Harrison, Sr., Big Chief

Cherokee Hunters

Cheyenne / Cheyenne Hunters

Alfred Womble, Jr., Big Chief

Wanda Womble, Big Queen

Ashley Hayes, Second Queen

James Payne, Spy Boy

Curtis “Shug” Williams, Sr. Big Chief, Ancestor

Ferdinand T Bigard, Big Chief, Ancestor

Darryl O’Neal, Flag Boy

Thomas “Bo” Dean, III, Chief

Chippewa Hunters

Choctaw Hunters

Comanche Hunters (Initially a children’s gang that came to include adults)

Keith “Keke’ Gibson, Big Chief

Keyonna Lincoln Braxton, Big Queen

Jerome Augusta, Co-founder

Charlie Tenner, Spy Boy

Michael Tenner, Spy Boy

Vernon Freeman, Sr. Flag Boy

Clifton Smith, Flag Boy

Wild Man Ro

Congo Nation

Donald Harrison, Jr, Big Chief

Isadora Mendez-Scott, Queen

Christian Scott aTunde Adjuah, Spy Boy

Dwaine Hutchens, Spy Boy

Kiel Adrian Scott, Flag Boy

Creole Apache

Walter Sandifer, Jr., Big Chief, Founder

Creole Chevejo

Kevin “Cheveyo” Turner, Big Chief

Creole Hunters (See 7th Ward Creole Hunters)

Creole Osceolas

Clarence “Delco” Dalcour, Big Chief, Founder

Tricia Booutte-Langlo, Gang Queen

Kelly Ann Pearson, Flag Queen/ Big Queen

Ephron “Zeke” Debose, 1st Chief

Larry Marchez, Third Chief

E. Shon Mayo, Spy Boy

Aaron Washington, Spy Boy

Johnathan Christopher Bartholomew, Flag Boy

Efrem Zimbalist Boles, Flag Boy

Edwin Mayo, Flag Boy

Ronald Sanders, Flag Boy

Robert Weber, Flag Boy

Creole Wild West

Additional Link

Howard Miller, Big Chief

Walter Cook, Jr. Big Chief, Retired

Terrence Mitchell, Big Chief

Cornelius Tillman, Jr., Big Chief, Ancestor

Robert Nathaniel Lee, Big Chief, Ancestor

Henry Marigny, Big Chief, Ancestor

Donald Harrison, Sr., Big Chief, Ancestor

Edwin Harrison, Big Chief, Ancestor

Hercules Gaten, Big Chief, Ancestor

Becate Batiste, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Pauline “Ree” Johnson, Big Queen

Littdell S. Banister, Tribal Queen

Rukiya, Third Queen

Jerome Augusta, Spy Boy

Clifton Nelson, Spy Boy

Gregory Perkins, Spy Boy

Walter Sandifer, Spy Boy

Walter Sandifer, III, Spy Boy

Allen Sandifer, Spy Boy

Irving Banister, Jr., Gang Flag

Miker Brachen

Isaac Edwards, Flag Boy

Michael Green, Flag Boy

James Harris, Flag Boy

Robert Louis “Slim” Stevenson, Jr., Flag Boy

Diamond Stars

Eastern Cherokee

Flaming Arrows

Additional Link

Kevin Goodman, Big Chief

Alfred Doucette, Big Chief, Ancestor

Marc Doucette, Big Chief, Ancestor

Theodore Goodman Big Chief, Ancestor

“Merc” Mercadel, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Aaron Barbarin, Sr. Flag Boy

Leroy Rouse, Flag Boy/Spy Boy

Geronimo Hunters

Tom Landry, Big Chief, Founder

Keshia Holmes, Big Queen

Athanase Johnson, Flag Boy

Jeremy “Black” Lacen, Gang Flag

Golden Arrows

Eugene “Pepe” Esteban, Big Chief

Robert “Robbe” Nathaniel Lee, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Dianne Chaney, Big Queen

Golden Blades

Derrick Hulin, Big Chief

Ben Clark, Big Chief, Founder

Robert “Robbe” lee, Big Chief, Ancestor

Paul Longpre, Big Chief, Ancestor

Leon Robinson, Big Chief

Patrice Gordon, Big Queen

Chianti Berry, Gang Queen

Veronica Henry, Third Queen

Philip Lomax, Spy Boy

Isaac Edwards

Joseph Pierre

Terrill Lewis, Flag Boy

Lewis Thomas, Sr. Flag Boy

Golden Comanche

Juan Pardo, Big Chief

Wallace Pardo, Big Chief, Founder

Golden Eagles

Joseph “Joe” Boudreaux, Big Chief

Joseph “Monk” Boudreaux, Big Chief, Founder

Wynoka Boudreaux, Big Queen

Mary Jones, Big Queen

Golden Feather / Golden Feather Hunters

Additional Link

Shaka Zulu, Big Chief , Founder

Golden Sioux

Juan Padro, Big Chief

Irving Bannister, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Ronnie Ellis, Big Chief

Oliver, Big Chief, Ancestor

Golden Star

Raymond Perique, Big Chief, Ancestor

Jerry Brown, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Golden Star Hunters

Larry Bannock, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Patrice Griffin, Big Queen

Golden Sioux

Henry Thomas, Big Chief

Shirley May Thomas, Big Queen

Golden Star Hunters

Larry Bannock, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Grey Eagles

Wesley Cook, Gang Flag

Guardians of the Flame

Additional Link

Brian Harrison Nelson, Big Chief

Donald Harrison, Sr, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Cherice Harrison Nelson, Big

Queen/Maroon Queen; Co-founder, Mardi Gras Indian

Hall of Fame

Donna Crump, Queen

Adella Gautier, Griot Queen

Jamilah Y. Peters-Muhammad, Ambassador Queen

Karen-Kaia Livers, Wild Woman

Dondrell Cage, Jr, Spy Boy, Ancestor

Kiel Adrian Scott

Herreast Harrison, Director and Curator

Big Chief Donald Harrison, Jr. Museum Co-founder, Guardian Institute

Haley Braves

Hard Head Hunters

Additional Link

Otto “Fiyo” DeJean, Sr., Big Chief, Founder

Jared McKay, Spy Boy

Ryan Burrows, Sr., Flag Boy

Travis Carter, Flag Boy

Ajay Joseph Mallery, Sr., Flag Boy

Robert Louis Stevenson, Jr., Flag Boy

Hundred and One

Cornelius “Brother” Tillman, Big Chief, Ancestor

Indians of the Nation

Howard “Smiley” Ricks, Big Chief

Louisiana Star Choctaw Nation

Loyal Breed Apache Warrriors

Mandingo Warriors, Spirit of Fi Yi Yi

Victor Harris, Spirit of Fi Yi Yi, Big Chief, Founder

Kim Boutte, Big Queen, Ancestor

Sula Janet Evans, Medicine Queen

“Cinnamon Black” Resa Bazile Wilson, Queen

Perry Emery, Flag Boy

Massai Hunters

Keelan “Dump” Boyd, Big Chief

Medallion Hunters

Mohawk Hunters

Tyrone Casby, Sr., Big Chief

Frank Casby, Sr. Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Lexus Parker, Big Chief Ancestor

Leo Roy, Big Chief, Ancestor

Rayfield Parker, Big Chief

Frank Jones, Big Chief

Rita Johnson, Big Queen

Rita Henry Chambers, Gang Queen

Dow Michael Edwards, Spy Boy

Kenneth Scott, Spy Boy

Jamal Casby, Flag Boy

Charles Dillion, Flag Boy

Cedric Henry, Sr. Gang Flag

Monogram Hunters

Jeremy Tyrone Stevenson, Big Chief

Tyrone Steven, Big Chief, Founder

Allison “Tootie” Montana, Big Chief

Alfred Montana, Big Chief (Big Chief Tootie’s father)

Denice Smith, Big Queen

Freddie Washington, Spy Boy

One Eleven

Eddie Richardson, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

One Hundred and One Hunters

Raymond “Butter bowl” Perique, Ancestor

Original White Eagles

Gerald Milton, Big Chief

Jake Melancon, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Original Yellow Jackets

George Palfray, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Red Cheyenne

Johnathan Ohilia, Big Chief, Founder

Red Flame Hunters

Additional Link

David Perry, Big Chief

Darrin Perry, Big Chief, Ancestor

Ed “Tugga” Cloud Buckner, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Eric Smith, Flag Boy

Ja’Quan McNair, Wild Man

Eric Smith, Gang Flag

Edward Buckner, Founder

Red Hawk Hunters

Nelson Burke, Big Chief, Founder

Patrina Peters, Big Wild Queen

Roger Hulbert, Spy Boy

Vernon Jordan, Spy Boy

Darrell Preston, Spy Boy

Ronnel Butler, Flag Boy

Teral Butler, Flag Boy

Michael Green, Flag Boy

Richard Ivory Turner, Chief

Red, White and Blue

Don Shafford, Big Chief

Joe Allen, Big Chief

Jack Green, Sr., Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Walter Sandifer, Jr., Spy Boy

Seminole (Hunters)

Keith “Keitoe” Jones, Big Chief

David “Chief” Beaulieau, Big Chief

Joe Pete, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Sally Jones, Big Queen

Nelson Thompson Flag Boy/Second Chief

Demond Melancon, Spy Boy

Seminole Warriors

James “Yam” Harris, Big Chief, Founder

Shining Star Hunters

Jimmy Hicks, Big Chief, Founder

Michelle Hammothe, Big Queen

Ronald Matthews, Flag Boy

Jeremiah Williams, Flag Boy

Shrewsbury Blues

Chick Webb, Big Chief Founder, Ancestor

Timbuktu Warriors

Dow Edwards, Big Chief, Founder

Lisa Edwards, Big Queen

Tomahawk Hunters

Darren D-lo” Beard, Big Chief, Founder

Trouble Nation

Markeith Tero, Big Chief

Emmanuel Hingle, Big Chief, Founder

Jermaine Bossier

Unified Nation

Travis Williams, Big Chief

Devan Williams, Big Chief, Ancestor

Uptown Warriors

Edward Johnson, Big Chief, Founder

Cardell Patterson, Flag Boy

David Williams

Washitaw Nation

Additional Link

Additional Link

David Montana, Big Chief, Founder

Eldon Harris, Second Chief

Ausettua AmorAmenkum, Big Queen

Kijafa Brown, Queen

Sarah Hargrove, Queen

White Cloud Hunters

Charles Taylor, Big Chief

Charles Collins, Big Chief

Harold Fethuson, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Clarence “Bozo” Davis, Sr., Big Chief, Ancestor

Joyce Robair, Big Queen

Leroy Ross, Flag Boy

White Eagles

Terrrence Gasper, Big Chief

Jake Milton, Big Chief

Robert “Robbe” Lee, Big Chief

Lionel “Bird” Oubichon, Big Chief

Lawrence Fletcher, Big Chief

Eugene Thomas, Jr., Big Chief, Ancestor

Clarence Davis, Big Chief, Ancestor

Gerald “Jake” Mellon, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Laura “LaLee,” Queen

Wade Batiste, Spy Boy

Nathaniel “Nat” Williams

Isaac “Ike” Edwards, Flag Boy/Second Chief

Nelson Thomas, Flag Boy

Neljuana Mallery, Queen

Wild Apache

Franklin Davis, Big Chief

Ray “Hatchet” Blazio, Sr., Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Theris Kirby “Butt” Valdery, Flag Boy

Freddie Washington, Spy Boy

Wild Bogacheetus

Nathaniel “Butch” Maniger, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Wild Comanche Hunters

“Smiley” Ricks, Big Chief

Wild Magnolias

Gerard “Bo” Dollis, Jr, Big Chief

Theodore Emile “Bo” Dollis, Sr., Big Chief, Ancestor

Joe Lee Baker, Big Chief

Walter Cook, Sr. Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Laurita Barras Dollis, Big Queen, Founder & President, Queens of the Nation Indian Council

Queen Tahj

Tom Landry, Spy Boy

Anthony “Tuba Fat” Lacen, Wild Man, Ancestor

Johnnie “Kool” Stevenson, Flag Boy, Ancestor

Robert Louis “Slim” Stevenson, Jr., Flag Boy/Drummer

Wild Mohicans

Kentrell Watson, Sr., Big Chief, Founder

Gregory Perkins, Spy Boy

Miker Bachen, Gang Flag

Wild of Nation

Roger Wilson, Big Chief

Demetrice Walters, Big Queen

Wild Red Flame

David Perry, Big Chief

Daryn Perry, Big Chief, Ancestor

Reginald Porter, Big Chief, Ancestor

Wild Opelousas (Youth group / Martin Behrman Charter School)

Tycen Grant, Big Chief

Wild Squatoulas

Danny Lambert, Big Chief

Wild Tchoupitoulas

Roderick Sylvas, Big Chief

Johnny Diggs, Big Chief

George “Jolly” Landry, Big Chief, Founder Ancestor

Ethelyn Marshall, Big Queen

Mary Kay Stevenson, Big Queen

Mercedes Stevenson, Big Queen

Charmaine Neville, Queen

Keith Scott, Spy Boy

Roy Johnson, Jr., Flag Boy

Robbe Lee, Big Chief

Wild Tremé

Additional Link

Andrew “Drew” Justin, Big Chief

Porres Justin, Big Chief, Founder

Yellow Jackets

Sterling Desmond, Big Chief

Charles “Lil Charles” Taylor, Big Chief

Thomas “Tom” Sparks, Sr., Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor (Masked for 70 years)

George Palfrey, Big Chief

Reggie Henry, Spy Boy

Yellow Pocahontas

Darryl Montana, Big Chief

Allison “Tootie” Montana, Big Chief, Ancestor

Alfred Montana, Big Chief, Ancestor

Sam Treed, Big Chief, Ancestor

Eugene Honoré, Big Chief, Ancestor

Gina Montana, Big Queen

Kalindah Laveaux, Voodoo Queen

Gregory Sellers, Spy Boy

Belton “Noonie Man” Batiste, Spy Boy

Ricky Gettridge, Spy Boy

Eldon Harris, Spy Boy

Fred Johnson, Jr, Spy Boy

Gregory Sellars, Spy Boy

Tyrone Yancy, Spy Boy

Jermaine Bossier

Young Black Mohawks

Shilyn Cosey, Little Queen

Young Brave Hunters

James Battiste, Big Chief

Young Cherokee Hunters

Waddie Griffin, Big Chief, Founder

Young Cheyenne

Thomas “Bo” Dean, Big Chief

Paris Hayes, Little Queen

Wade Batiste, Spy Boy

Wesley Cook, Gang Boy

Young Comanche Hunters

Malaya Braxton, Little Queen

Young Creole Wild West

Journey Banister, Little Queen

Young Generations

Zack Gummee, Big Chief, Founder

Asmar R. Clark, Sr., Spy Boy

Young Golden Blades

Na-Kala Duncan, Little Queen

Lucy Langford, Little Queen

Malay Thomas, Princess

Young Golden Comanche

Sky Alani Pardo, Big Queen

Young Golden Star Hunters

Tonja Hollingsworth, Little Queen

Young Guardians of the Flame

Brian Harrison-Nelson, Big Chief, Founder

Kevin Cooley, Jr. Big Chief

Dariel Thompson, Flag Girl

Ruby Booker, Baby Queen

Irvinyell Bright, Princess

Kenya DeArmas, Princess

Kenyatta DeArmas, Flag Girl

Kenyariah DeArmas, Flag Girl

Cailey Lewis, Baby Princess

Kelci Lewis, Princess

Scotland Marquez, Princess

Malon McGee, Princess

Nadia Rose Robinson, Queen

Dondriel Thompson, Flame Keeper

Young Hunters

Keith Stanford, Big Chief

Young Mandingo Warrriors

Mikira Kirton, Little Queen

Young Maasai Hunters

Keelian “Dump” Boyd, Big Chief, Founder, Ancestor

Meeka “Mimi” Boyd, Big Queen

Freddie Washington, Spy Boy

Orlando “P-nut” Barber, Spy Boy

Young Monogram Hunters

Young Navaho

Darryl Gordon, Big Chief, Founder

Young Red Hawk Hunters

Jes-Zhare Johnson, Little Queen

Young Seminole Hunters

Demond Melancon, Big Chief, Founder

Additional Link

Young Warriors

Kevin Sanford, Big Chief, Founder

Young Washitaw Nation

Dynasti Smith, Little Queen

Amina Mosi Watson, Little Queenie

Young Wild Magnolias

Acerria Angel Dollis, Baby Queen

Young Wild Tchoupitoulas

Remy Andrea Johnson, Little Queen

Amari Zoe Sylvas, Little Queen

Additional Sources

Ehrenreich, Jeffrey David, Herreast J. Harrison, and Cherice Harrison-Nelson, eds. Queens Rule! XIII. New Orleans: Mardi Gras Indian Hall of Fame, 2015.

Harrison-Nelson, Cherice, ed. Spy Boy Yearbook. New Orleans: Mardi Gras Indian Hall of F Fame, 2013.

Harrison-Nelson, Cherice, and Jeffrey David Ehrenreich, eds. Flag Boy/Gang Flag Yearbook. New Orleans: Mardi Gras Indian Hall of Fame, 2015.

Johnson, Charlie. Interview, 12/ 15/ 2022.

Lief, Shane, and John McCusker. Jockomo: The Native Roots of Mardi Gras Indians. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2019. Lewis, Ronald W., and Rachel Breunlin. The House of Dance and Feathers: A Museum by Ronald W. Lewis. New Orleans, LA: UNO Press/Neighborhood Story Project, 2009.

Sakakeeny, Matt. Mardi Gras Indians. 64 Parishes. Smith, Michael P. Mardi Gras Indians. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Company, 1994.